Hey friends! Time for another smoking hot edition of Geeky Friday! No long intro this week since I’m celebrating my birthday and will be chillaxing with friends and family. On this week’s agenda we have some hot new research on abdominal muscles in weightlifters, exercise order, creatine supplementation, obesity and much more. Don’t let me hold you back. Get your geek on – like right now.
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I wish you all an awesome weekend including resting, socializing and lifting heavy stuff.
PS. Want more? You can find the old Geeky Friday posts under the RESEARCH category!
Phys Ther Sport. 2011 Nov;12(4):171-4
Authors: Sitilertpisan P, Pirunsan U, Puangmali A, Ratanapinunchai J, Kiatwattanacharoen S, Neamin H, Laskin JJ
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To compare lateral abdominal muscle thickness between weightlifters and matched controls.
DESIGN: A case control study design.
SETTING: University laboratory.
SUBJECTS: 16 female Thai national weightlifters and 16 matched controls participated in this study.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ultrasound imaging with a 12-MHz linear array was used to measure the resting thickness of transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and total thickness (Total) of lateral abdominal muscle (LAM) on the right side of abdominal wall. The absolute muscle thickness and the relative contribution of each muscle to the total thickness were determined.
RESULTS: Weightlifters had significantly thicker absolute TrA and IO muscles than matched controls (p < 0.01). Further, the relative thickness of the IO was significantly greater in weightlifters than matched controls (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that routine Olympic style weight training among female weightlifters appears to result in preferential hypertrophy or adaptation of the IO muscle.
Strength prior to endurance intra-session exercise sequence optimizes neuromuscular and cardiovascular gains in elderly men.
Exp Gerontol. 2012 Feb;47(2):164-9
Authors: Cadore EL, Izquierdo M, Alberton CL, Pinto RS, Conceição M, Cunha G, Radaelli R, Bottaro M, Trindade GT, Kruel LF
Abstract:This study investigated the effects of different intra-session exercise sequences in the cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations induced by concurrent training in elderly. Twenty-six healthy elderly men (64.7±4.1years), were randomly placed into two concurrent training groups: strength training prior to (SE, n=13) or after (ES, n=13) endurance training. Subjects trained strength and endurance training 3 times per week performing both exercise types in the same training session. The peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)), maximum aerobic workload (W(máx)), absolute (VT(1) and VT(2)) and relative (VT(1)% and VT(2)%) ventilatory thresholds, as well as workloads at VT(1) and VT(2) (W(VT1) and W(VT2)) were evaluated during a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer before and after the training. In addition, muscle quality (MQ) was evaluated by the quotient between maximal dynamic strength (one repetition maximum test) of the knee extensors and the quadriceps femoris muscle thickness determined by ultrasonography. There were no modifications after training in the VT(1), VT(2), VT(1)%, and VT(2)%. There was significant increase in the W(VT1) only in SE (P
Int J Sports Med. 2011 Dec;32(12):975-81. Epub 2011 Nov 30.
Authors: Smith AE, Fukuda DH, Ryan ED, Kendall KL, Cramer JT, Stout J.
Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of creatine (Cr) loading and sex differences on aerobic running performance. 27 men (mean±SD; age: 22.2±3.1 years, ht: 179.5±8.7 cm, wt: 78.0±9.8 kg) and 28 women (age: 21.2±2.1 years, ht: 166.0±5.8 cm, wt: 63.4±8.9 kg) were randomly assigned to either creatine (Cr, di-creatine citrate; n=27) or a placebo (PL; n=28) group, ingesting 1 packet 4 times daily (total of 20 g/day) for 5 days. Aerobic power (maximal oxygen consumption: VO2max) was assessed before and after supplementation using open circuit spirometry (Parvo-Medics) during graded exercise tests on a treadmill. 4 high-speed runs to exhaustion were conducted at 110, 105, 100, and 90% of peak velocity to determine critical velocity (CV). Distances achieved were plotted over times-to-exhaustion and linear regression was used to determine the slopes (critical velocity, CV) assessing aerobic performance. The results indicated that Cr loading did not positively or negatively influence VO2max, CV, time to exhaustion or body mass (p>0.05). These results suggest Cr supplementation may be used in aerobic running activities without detriments to performance.
Pediatr Obes. 2012 Feb 10;
Authors: Weeks BK, Beck BR
Abstract:OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a twice-weekly, school-based, 10-min jumping regime on muscle and fat tissue in healthy adolescent boys and girls. METHODS: We replaced regular warm-up activities with jumping in physical education (PE) classes of early high school students for 8 months to observe the effect on muscle and fat tissue. A total of 99 adolescents (46 boys, 53 girls; 13.8 ± 0.4 years) volunteered to participate. Intervention group subjects performed 10 min of varied jumping activity, while control subjects performed a regular PE warm-up. Biometrics, Tanner staging, age of peak height velocity (PHV), vertical jump, whole body lean tissue and fat mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived) were measured at baseline and follow-up. Physical activity was determined by questionnaire. RESULTS: There were no differences in any measured variable between control and intervention groups at baseline. Boys had a significantly older age of PHV than girls (p = 0.02). No group differences were detected for 8-month change in height, weight or maturity measures for the combined sample; however, at 8 months, jumpers had accrued greater lean tissue mass than controls (p = 0.002). Sex-specific analysis revealed that intervention group boys had gained more lean tissue mass than controls (p = 0.016) and experienced significant fat loss (p = 0.010) than controls, an effect that was not observed in the girls. CONCLUSION: Regular, short-duration, jumping activity during adolescence increased lean tissue mass and boys additionally lost fat mass. Sex-specific and/or maturation-specific factors may explain the disparity in effect.
Ageing Res Rev. 2012 Mar 15;
Authors: Vincent HK, Raiser SN, Vincent KR
Abstract:Advancing age and adiposity contribute to musculoskeletal degenerative diseases and the development of sarcopenic obesity. The etiology of muscle loss is multifactorial, and includes inflammation, oxidative stress and hormonal changes, and is worsened by activity avoidance due to fear of pain. The risk for mobility disability and functional impairment rises with severity of obesity in the older adult. Performance measures of walking distance, walking speed, chair rise, stair climb, body transfers and ability to navigate obstacles on a course are adversely affected in this population, and this reflects decline in daily physical functioning. Exercise training is an ideal intervention to counteract the effects of aging and obesity. The 18 randomized controlled trials of exercise studies with or without diet components reviewed here indicate that 3-18 month programs that included aerobic and strengthening exercise (2-3 days per week) with caloric restriction (typically 750kcal deficit/day), induced the greatest change in functional performance measures compared with exercise or diet alone. Importantly, resistance exercise attenuates muscle mass loss with the interventions. These interventions can also combat factors that invoke sarcopenia, including inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Therefore, regular multimodal exercise coupled with diet appears to be very effective for counteracting sarocpenic obesity and improving mobility and function in the older, obese adult.
Pediatr Obes. 2012 Feb;7(1):65-72
Authors: Antonogeorgos G, Panagiotakos DB, Papadimitriou A, Priftis KN, Anthracopoulos M, Nicolaidou P
Abstract:OBJECTIVES: Increased meal frequency and daily breakfast consumption have been inversely associated with childhood obesity. The purpose of the study was to examine the possible interaction effect between meal frequency and breakfast consumption on childhood obesity.
METHODS: Seven hundred children (323 boys) aged 10-12 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Several lifestyle, dietary and physical activity characteristics were recorded with food frequency and physical activity questionnaires. Body height and weight were measured and body mass index was calculated in order to classify children as overweight or obese (International Obesity Task Force classification). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used in order to evaluate the interaction between daily breakfast intake and more than three meals per day consumption with overweight or obesity. REUSLTS: Of the children, 27.6% and 9.0% were overweight and obese, respectively. Moreover, 60.2% consumed three or more meals per day and 62.7% consumed breakfast in a regular daily basis. Children who consumed more than three meals per day and also consumed breakfast daily, were two times less likely to be overweight or obese (adjusted odds ratio: 0.49, 95% confidence interval: 0.27-0.88).
CONCLUSION: A combined higher meal frequency and daily breakfast consumption dietary pattern may prevent overweight and obesity in children.
The Effect of Training at a Specific Time-of-Day on the Diurnal Variations of Short-Term Exercise Performances in 10- to 11-Year-Old Boys.
Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2012 Feb;24(1):84-99
Authors: Souissi H, Chtourou H, Chaouachi A, Dogui M, Chamari K, Souissi N, Amri M
Abstract:The aim of this study was to assess the effect of time-of-day-specific training on the diurnal variations of short-term performances in boys. Twenty-four boys were randomized into a morning-training-group (07:00-08:00h; MTG), an evening-training-group (17:00-18:00h; ETG) and a control-group (CG). They performed four tests of strength and power (unilateral isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the knee extensor muscles, Squat-Jump, Counter-Movement-Jump and Wingate tests) at 07:00 and 17:00h just before (T0) and after 6 weeks of resistance training (T1). In T0, the results revealed that short-term performances improved and oral temperature increased significantly from morning to afternoon (amplitudes between 2.36 and 17.5% for both oral temperature and performances) for all subjects. In T1, the diurnal variations of performances were blunted in the MTG and persisted in the ETG and CG. Moreover, the training program increase muscle strength and power especially after training in the morning hours and the magnitude of gains was greater at the time-of-day-specific training than at other times. In conclusion, these results suggest that time-of-day-specific training increases the child’s anaerobic performances specifically at this time-of-day. Moreover, the improvement of these performances was greater after morning than evening training.