Volume #7

Hmm, I wonder what’s on Geeky Friday  this week?

(Yes she is here exclusively to drive traffic from your facebook wall to this article)

Hey guys,

The spring is finally here (at least in Sweden) and the sun is shining right at me as I’m writing this, all pleased and definitely ready for the weekend. I’m getting more and more fat loss client requests which definitely is a sign that the summer is approaching. I’m daydreaming about hanging out on the beach, all the barbecue and dancing till dawn- can’t wait.

Training has been going increadibly good lately, with PR after PR on a consistant basis, and I think I’ve finally come up with an awesome hybrid of different training styles that has given me awesome results lately. I’ve experienced better results in the last 6 months than I have in years: 10 kg (22lbs) weight gain since September, awesome strength gains and much less fat gain then I’d expect (after all, I’ve been playing this game for almost a decade). Trying the beta version out right now on myself and a few clients, and hope to share this program with you in the near future.

Other that that, I’ve been doing some research the last few days about the very often heard notion that children and teenagers should be careful when strength training because heavy lifting might hinder normal growth. I’ve been dissecting this matter and looking at the reserach, hope to sum it up for you in a neat article in the comming days – so stay tuned for that.

Ok, now let’s get to what you all came here for, not my ranting about stuff. I know you all want to end this week smarter then you started – Who am I to stop that? This week includes some awesome stuff about intermittent fasting, very low calorie diets, obesity treatment, diabetes, fat loss strategies, antioxidants and much much more. Let the Geeking begin!

Make sure you share this article with your friends and followers. We need to spread the science and integrate it with the  massive amounts of personal experience that is already out there-  so we can make the best and most effective programs for ourselves and our clients. Also, hit me up on Facebook,Twitter and Google+. Interacting with like-minded on day to day basis is one of the main reasons I run this site. Lastly,  feel free to leave any questions or feedback in the comments below, I look much forward to hearing from you.

I wish you all an awesome weekend including resting, socializing and lifting heavy stuff.

In strength,

Bojan

PS. Want more? You can find the old Geeky Friday posts under the RESEARCH category!

Relation of Routine, Periodic Fasting to Risk of Diabetes Mellitus, and Coronary Artery Disease in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography.

Am J Cardiol. 2012 Mar 15;

Authors: Horne BD, Muhlestein JB, May HT, Carlquist JF, Lappé DL, Bair TL, Anderson JL,

Abstract: Previously we discovered that routine periodic fasting was associated with a lower prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). Other studies have shown that fasting increases longevity in animals. A hypothesis-generating analysis suggested that fasting may also associate with diabetes. This study prospectively tested whether routine periodic fasting is associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients (n = 200) undergoing coronary angiography were surveyed for routine fasting behavior before their procedure. DM diagnosis was based on physician reports of current and historical clinical and medication data. Secondary end points included CAD (physician reported for ≥1 lesion of ≥70% stenosis), glucose, and body mass index (BMI). Meta-analyses were performed by evaluation of these patients and 448 patients from a previous study. DM was present in 10.3% of patients who fasted routinely and 22.0% of those who do not fast (odds ratio [OR] 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17 to 0.99, p = 0.042). CAD was found in 63.2% of fasting and 75.0% of nonfasting patients (OR 0.42, CI 0.21 to 0.84, p = 0.014), and in nondiabetics this CAD association was similar (OR 0.38, CI 0.16 to 0.89, p = 0.025). Meta-analysis showed modest differences for fasters versus nonfasters in glucose concentrations (108 ± 36 vs 115 ± 46 mg/dl, p = 0.047) and BMI (27.9 ± 5.3 vs 29.0 ± 5.8 kg/m(2), p = 0.044). In conclusion, prospective hypothesis testing showed that routine periodic fasting was associated with a lower prevalence of DM in patients undergoing coronary angiography. A reported fasting association with a lower CAD risk was also validated and fasting associations with lower glucose and BMI were found.

Obesity: a disease or a biological adaptation? An update.

Obes Rev. 2012 Mar 14;

Authors: Chaput JP, Doucet E, Tremblay A

Abstract: Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of excess body fat and can be conceptualized as the physical manifestation of chronic energy excess. An important challenge of today’s world is that our so-called obesogenic environment is conducive to the consumption of energy and unfavourable to the expenditure of energy. The modern, computer-dependent, sleep-deprived, physically inactive humans live chronically stressed in a society of food abundance. From a physiological standpoint, the excess weight gain observed in prone individuals is perceived as a normal consequence to a changed environment rather than a pathological process. In other words, weight gain is a sign of our contemporary way of living or a ‘collateral damage’ in the physiological struggle against modernity. Additionally, substantial body fat loss can complicate appetite control, decrease energy expenditure to a greater extent than predicted, increase the proneness to hypoglycaemia and its related risk towards depressive symptoms, increase the plasma and tissue levels of persistent organic pollutants that promote hormone disruption and metabolic complications, all of which are adaptations that can increase the risk of weight regain. In contrast, body fat gain generally provides the opposite adaptations, emphasizing that obesity may realistically be perceived as an a priori biological adaptation for most individuals. Accordingly, prevention and treatment strategies for obesity should ideally target the main drivers or root causes of body fat gain in order to be able to improve the health of the population.

Impact of Chronic Exercise Training on the Blood Pressure Response to Orthostatic Stimulation.

J Appl Physiol. 2012 Mar 15;

Authors: Sugawara J, Komine H, Miyazawa T, Imai T, Fisher JP, Ogoh S

Abstract:Exercise training elicits morphological adaptations in the left ventricle (LV) and large conduit arteries that are specific to the type of training performed (i.e., endurance vs. resistance exercise). We investigated whether the mode of chronic exercise training, and the associated cardiovascular adaptations, influence the blood pressure responses to orthostatic stimulation in 30 young healthy men (10 sedentary, 10 endurance-trained, and 10 resistance-trained). The endurance-trained group had a significantly larger LV end-diastolic volume normalized by body surface area (vs. sedentary and resistance-trained groups), whereas the resistance-trained group had a significantly higher LV wall thickness and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) compared with the endurance-trained group. In response to 60-degree head-up tilt (HUT), mean arterial pressure (MAP) rose in the resistance-trained group (+6.5±1.6 mmHg, P

Very-low-calorie diet: a quick therapeutic tool to improve β cell function in morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Mar;95(3):609-13

Authors: Malandrucco I, Pasqualetti P, Giordani I, Manfellotto D, De Marco F, Alegiani F, Sidoti AM, Picconi F, Di Flaviani A, Frajese G, Bonadonna RC, Frontoni S

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Caloric restriction in obese diabetic patients quickly improves glucose control, independently from weight loss. However, the early effects of a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes are still unclear.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the relative contributions of insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, or both to improvement in glucose metabolism, after 1 wk of caloric restriction, in severely obese diabetic patients.

DESIGN: Hyperglycemic clamps were performed in 14 severely obese (BMI, in kg/m(2): >40) patients with type 2 diabetes in good glucose control (glycated hemoglobin < 7.5%) before and after 7 d of a VLCD (400 kcal/d).

RESULTS: The VLCD caused a 3.22 ± 0.56% weight loss (P < 0.001), 42.0% of which was fat loss, accompanied by decreases in fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.05) and triglycerides (P < 0.01). In parallel, the Disposition Index, which measures the body’s capability to dispose of a glucose load, increased from 59.0 ± 6.3 to 75.5 ± 6.3 mL· min(-1) · m(-2) body surface area (P < 0.01), because of improvements in indexes of both first- and second-phase insulin secretion (P < 0.02), but with no changes in insulin sensitivity (P = 0.33).

CONCLUSION: The marked improvement in metabolic profile, observed in severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes after a 7-d VLCD, was primarily due to the amelioration of β cell function, whereas no contribution of insulin sensitivity was shown.

Regulation of food intake, energy balance, and body fat mass: implications for the pathogenesis and treatment of obesity.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Mar;97(3):745-55

Authors: Guyenet SJ, Schwartz MW

Abstract: Context: Obesity has emerged as one of the leading medical challenges of the 21st century. The resistance of this disorder to effective, long-term treatment can be traced to the fact that body fat stores are subject to homeostatic regulation in obese individuals, just as in lean individuals. Because the growing obesity epidemic is linked to a substantial increase in daily energy intake, a key priority is to delineate how mechanisms governing food intake and body fat content are altered in an obesogenic environment. Evidence Acquisition: We considered all relevant published research and cited references that represented the highest quality evidence available. Where space permitted, primary references were cited. Evidence Synthesis: The increase of energy intake that has fueled the U.S. obesity epidemic is linked to greater availability of highly rewarding/palatable and energy-dense food. Obesity occurs in genetically susceptible individuals and involves the biological defense of an elevated body fat mass, which may result in part from interactions between brain reward and homeostatic circuits. Inflammatory signaling, accumulation of lipid metabolites, or other mechanisms that impair hypothalamic neurons may also contribute to the development of obesity and offer a plausible mechanism to explain the biological defense of elevated body fat mass. Conclusions: Despite steady research progress, mechanisms underlying the resistance to fat loss once obesity is established remain incompletely understood. Breakthroughs in this area may be required for the development of effective new obesity prevention and treatment strategies.

The interactions between hemostasis and resistance training: a review.

Int J Gen Med. 2012;5:249-54

Authors: Nascimento Dda C, Neto FR, de Santana FS, da Silva RA, Dos Santos-Neto L, Balsamo S

Abstract: Physical inactivity is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is strongly associated with changes in arterial structure. Regular physical activity and exercise contributes to the prevention of coronary artery disease. Therefore, cardiovascular and resistance training improve hemostatic parameters and promote a less thrombotic blood profile. This review highlights the studies, mechanisms, and outcomes relating to the effectiveness of resistance training on the process of hemostasis. The Pubmed, Scopus, Medline, Scielo, Lilacs, Ibecs, and Cochrane databases were used to locate the original articles. Seventeen studies were found during the research process. Of these, ten articles were excluded. Those protocols using a high volume of training for young adults showed a greater fibrinolytic response, and training protocols with intensities above 80% of 1 maximum repetition showed an increased platelet activity. In subjects with coronary artery disease, just one session of resistance training resulted in improvement in the fibrinolytic system (tissue plasminogen activator) without raising potential thrombotic markers.

Energy restriction and the prevention of breast cancer.

Authors: Harvie M, Howell A

Abstract: Energy restriction (ER) to control weight is a potential strategy for breast cancer prevention. The protective effects of habitual continuous energy restriction (CER) and weight loss on breast tumour formation have been conclusively demonstrated in animal studies over the past 100 years, and more recently in women using data from observational studies and bariatric surgery. Intermittent energy restriction (IER) and intermittent fasting (IF) are possible alternative preventative approaches which may be easier for individuals to undertake and possibly more effective than standard CER. Here, we summarise the available data on CER, IER and IF with special emphasis on their potential for breast cancer prevention. In animals, IER is superior or equivalent to CER with the exception of carcinogen-induced tumour models when initiated soon after carcinogen exposure. There are no human data on IER and breast cancer risk, but three studies demonstrated IER and CER to be equivalent for weight loss. IF regimens also reduce mammary tumour formation in animal models and also led to weight loss in human subjects, but have not been directly compared with CER. Animal and some human data suggest that both IER and IF may differ mechanistically compared with CER and may bring about greater reduction in hepatic and visceral fat stores, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels and cell proliferation, and increased insulin sensitivity and adiponectin levels. Although IER and IF were first studied 65 years ago, we conclude that further studies are required to assess their values compared with CER.

Antioxidants and Skeletal Muscle Performance: “Common Knowledge” vs. Experimental Evidence.

Front Physiol. 2012;3:46

Authors: Hernández A, Cheng A, Westerblad H
Abstract: Antioxidants are assumed to provide numerous benefits, including better health, a reduced rate of aging, and improved exercise performance. Specifically, antioxidants are commonly “prescribed” by the media, supplement industry, and “fitness experts” for individuals prior to training and performance, with assumed benefits of improved fatigue resistance and recovery. This has provoked expansion of the supplement industry which responded by creation of a plethora of products aimed at facilitating the needs of the active individual. However, what does the experimental evidence say about the efficacy of antioxidants on skeletal muscle function? Are antioxidants actually as beneficial as the general populous believes? Or, could they in fact lead to deleterious effects on skeletal muscle function and performance? This Mini Review addresses these questions with an unbiased look at what we know about antioxidant effects on skeletal muscle, and what we still need to know before conclusions can be made.

Family Meals: Associations with Weight and Eating Behaviors Among Mothers and Fathers.

Appetite. 2012 Mar 13;

Authors: Berge JM, Maclehose RF, Loth KA, Eisenberg ME, Fulkerson JA, Neumark-Sztainer D

Abstract:Few studies have looked at the relationship between family meals and adult weight and health behaviors. The current study investigates the association between frequency of family meals and mothers’ and fathers’ body mass index (BMI), dietary intake, dieting behaviors and binge eating. Data from Project F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current analysis. Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse mothers and fathers (n = 3,488) of adolescents participating in a multi-level population-based study (EAT 2010) completed surveys mailed to their homes. Predicted means or probabilities were calculated for each outcome variable at each level of family meal frequency. Interactions between race/ethnicity and marital status with family meals were evaluated in all models. Overall, results indicated that having more frequent family meals was associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables for mothers and fathers, after adjusting for age, educational attainment, marital status and race/ethnicity. Other findings including less fast food intake for fathers and fewer dieting and binge eating behaviors for mothers were significantly associated with family meal frequency, but not consistently across all family meal categories or with BMI. Interactions by race/ethnicity and marital status were non-significant, indicating that family meals may be important for more healthful dietary intake across race and marital status. Future research should confirm findings in longitudinal analyses to identify temporality and strength of associations.

Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Mar;95(3):614-25

Authors: de Souza RJ, Bray GA, Carey VJ, Hall KD, Leboff MS, Loria CM, Laranjo NM, Sacks FM, Smith SR

Abstract:BACKGROUND: Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear.
OBJECTIVE: We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass.
DESIGN: In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%).
RESULTS: At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P < 0.0001 compared with baseline values), with no differences between 25% and 15% protein (P ≥ 0.10), 40% and 20% fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P < 0.0001 compared with baseline values), with no differences between the diets (P ≥ 0.29). Women lost more visceral fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ∼40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y.
CONCLUSION: Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts

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