Volume # 38



Hey heavy lifters!


I’m a little short on time here so there will be no long introduction today. Just a little reminder that you are awesome.


Now, get your geek on while I continue to work on the Liza Phase 2 e-book!



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Effect of fed- versus fasted state resistance training during Ramadan on body composition and selected metabolic parameters in bodybuilders.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2013 Apr 25;10(1):23

Authors: Trabelsi K, Stannard SR, Ghlissi Z, Maughan RJ, Kallel C, Jamoussi K, Zeghal KM, Hakim A

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Muslim bodybuilders often continue training during Ramadan. However, the effect of resistance training in a fasted versus a fed state during Ramadan on body composition and metabolic parameters in bodybuilders is not well known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training in a fasted versus a fed state during Ramadan on body composition and metabolic parameters in bodybuilders. METHODS: Sixteen men were allocated to two groups: Eight practicing resistance training in the late afternoon in a fasted state (FAST), and eight training in the late evening in an acutely fed state (FED) during Ramadan. All visited the laboratory in the morning two days before the start of Ramadan (Bef-R) and on the 29th day of Ramadan (End-R) for anthropometric measurement, completion of a dietary questionnaire, and provision of fasting blood and urine samples. RESULTS: Body mass and body fat percentage remained unchanged in FAST and FED during the whole period of the investigation. Both FAST and FED experienced an increase in the following parameters from Bef-R to End-R: urine specific gravity (1%; p = 0.028, p = 0.004 respectively), serum concentrations of urea (4%, p = 0.006; 7%, p = 0.004 respectively), creatinine (5%, p = 0.015; 6%, p = 0.04 respectively), uric acid (17%; p < 0.001, p = 0.04 respectively), sodium(1%; p = 0.029, p = 0.019 respectively), chloride (2%; p = 0.039, p = 0.004 respectively), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11%, p = 0.04; 10%, p = 0.04 respectively). CONCLUSION: Hypertrophic training in a fasted or in a fed state during Ramadan does not affect body mass and body composition of bodybuilders. Additionally, Ramadan fasting induced changes in urinary and some biochemical parameters, but these changes were not different according to when the training occurred.


Muscle activity of the core during bilateral, unilateral, seated and standing resistance exercise.

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012 May;112(5):1671-8

Authors: Saeterbakken AH, Fimland MS

Abstract: Little is known about the effect of performing common resistance exercises standing compared to seated and unilaterally compared to bilaterally on muscle activation of the core. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the electromyographic activity (EMG) of the superficial core muscles (i.e. rectus abdominis, external oblique and erector spinae) between seated, standing, bilateral and unilateral dumbbell shoulder presses. 15 healthy males performed five repetitions at 80% of one-repetition maximum of the exercises in randomized order. Results were analyzed with a two-way analysis of variance and a Bonferroni post hoc test. The position × exercise interaction was significantly different for rectus abdominis (P = 0.016), but not for external oblique (P = 0.100) and erector spinae (P = 0.151). The following EMG results were observed: For rectus abdominis: ~49% lower in seated bilateral versus unilateral (P < 0.001), similar in standing bilateral versus unilateral (P = 0.408), ~81% lower in bilateral seated versus standing (P < 0.001), ~59% lower in unilateral seated versus standing (P < 0.001); For external oblique: ~81% lower in seated bilateral versus unilateral (P < 0.001), ~68% lower in standing bilateral than unilateral (P < 0.001), ~58% lower in bilateral seated versus standing (P < 0.001), ~28% lower in unilateral seated versus standing (P = 0.002); For erector spinae: similar in seated bilateral versus unilateral (P = 0.737), ~18% lower in standing bilateral versus unilateral (P = 0.001), similar in seated versus standing bilateral (P = 0.480) and unilateral (P = 0.690). In conclusion, to enhance neuromuscular activation of the superficial core muscles, standing exercises should be used instead of seated exercises, and unilateral exercises should be used instead of bilateral exercises.


Low intensity blood flow restriction training: a meta-analysis.

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012 May;112(5):1849-59

Authors: Loenneke JP, Wilson JM, Marín PJ, Zourdos MC, Bemben MG

Abstract: The primary objective of this investigation was to quantitatively identify which training variables result in the greatest strength and hypertrophy outcomes with lower body low intensity training with blood flow restriction (LI-BFR). Searches were performed for published studies with certain criteria. First, the primary focus of the study must have compared the effects of low intensity endurance or resistance training alone to low intensity exercise with some form of blood flow restriction. Second, subject populations had to have similar baseline characteristics so that valid outcome measures could be made. Finally, outcome measures had to include at least one measure of muscle hypertrophy. All studies included in the analysis utilized MRI except for two which reported changes via ultrasound. The mean overall effect size (ES) for muscle strength for LI-BFR was 0.58 [95% CI: 0.40, 0.76], and 0.00 [95% CI: -0.18, 0.17] for low intensity training. The mean overall ES for muscle hypertrophy for LI-BFR training was 0.39 [95% CI: 0.35, 0.43], and -0.01 [95% CI: -0.05, 0.03] for low intensity training. Blood flow restriction resulted in significantly greater gains in strength and hypertrophy when performed with resistance training than with walking. In addition, performing LI-BFR 2-3 days per week resulted in the greatest ES compared to 4-5 days per week. Significant correlations were found between ES for strength development and weeks of duration, but not for muscle hypertrophy. This meta-analysis provides insight into the impact of different variables on muscular strength and hypertrophy to LI-BFR training.


Abductor tendon tears are associated with hypertrophy of the tensor fasciae latae muscle.

Skeletal Radiol. 2013 May;42(5):627-33

Authors: Sutter R, Kalberer F, Binkert CA, Graf N, Pfirrmann CW, Gutzeit A

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between hypertrophy of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and abductor tendon tears.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients who underwent MRI of the abductor tendons of the hip were included in this retrospective study. A subgroup of 18 patients was examined bilaterally. The area of the tensor fasciae latae muscle and the area of the sartorius muscle (size reference) were quantified at the level of the femoral head, and a ratio was calculated. Two radiologists assessed the integrity of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon in consensus. Data were analyzed with a Mann-Whitney U test.
RESULTS: Sixteen out of 35 patients (46 %) had a tear of the gluteus medius or minimus tendon. The ratio of the area of the tensor fasciae latae to the sartorius muscle was significantly higher (p = .028) in the group with an abductor tendon tear (median 2.25; Interquartile Range [IQR] = 1.97-3.21) compared to the group without any tears (median 1.91; IQR = 1.52-2.26). The bilateral subanalysis showed that in patients without a tear, the ratio of the two areas did not differ between each side (p = .966), with a median of 1.54 (primary side) and 1.76 (contralateral side). In patients with an abductor tendon tear the ratio was significantly higher (p = .031) on the side with a tear (median 2.81) compared to the contralateral healthy side (1.67).
CONCLUSION: Patients with abductor tendon tears showed hypertrophy of the tensor fasciae latae muscle when compared to the contralateral healthy side and to patients without a tear.


A randomized 9-months study of blood pressure and body fat responses to aerobic training versus combined aerobic and resistance training in older men.

Exp Gerontol. 2013 Apr 26;

Authors: Sousa N, Mendes R, Abrantes C, Sampaio J, Oliveira J

Abstract: This randomized study evaluated the impact of different exercise training modalities on blood pressure and body fat responses in apparently healthy older men. Forty-eight elderly men (aged 65-75 years) were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group (ATG, n=15), a combined aerobic and resistance training group (CTG, n=16), or a control group (n=17). Both exercise training programs were moderate-to-vigorous intensity, three days/week for 9-months. Strength, aerobic endurance, body fat and blood pressure were measured on five different occasions. The data were analyzed using a mixed-model ANOVA, and the independence between systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and group was tested. A significant main effect of group (p<0.001) was observed in strength and aerobic endurance, with higher performance observed in the CTG. A significant main effect of group (p<0.001) and time (p=0.029) was observed in body fat percentage, with a 2.3% decrease in CTG. A significant main effect of time was observed in SBP (p=0.005) and in DBP (p=0.011) for both ATG and CTG. Mean decreases in SBP and DBP, respectively, was 15 and 6 mmHg for ATG and 24 and 12 mmHg for CTG. There was a significant association for SBP (p=0.008) and DBP (p=0.005) in the CTG, with significant individual BP profile modifications. Both exercise-training programs reduce resting blood pressure. However, only the combined exercise training was effective at reducing body fat percentage; consequently, there were larger changes in blood pressure, which result in a significant reduction in hypertensive subjects.


Muscular adaptations and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) responses to resistance training are stretch-mediated.

Muscle Nerve. 2013 Apr 27;

Authors: McMahon G, Morse CI, Burden A, Winwood K, Onambélé GL

Abstract: Introduction: Modulation of muscle characteristics was attempted through altering muscle stretch during resistance training. We hypothesized that stretch would enhance muscle responses. Methods: Participants trained for 8 weeks, loading the quadriceps in a shortened (SL-0-50(o) knee flexion; n=10) or lengthened (LL- 40-90(o) ; n=11) position, followed by 4 weeks detraining. Controls (CON; n=10) were untrained. Quadriceps strength, Vastus Lateralis architecture, anatomical cross-sectional area (aCSA), and serum IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor 1) were measured at weeks 0, 8, 10, and 12. Results: Increases in fascicle length (29±4% vs. 14±4%), distal aCSA (53±12% vs. 18±8%), strength (26±6% vs. 7±3%), and IGF-I (31±6% vs. 7±6%) were greater in LL compared to SL (P<0.05). No changes occurred in CON. Detraining decrements in strength and aCSA were greater in SL than LL (P<0.05). Discussion: Enhanced muscle in vivo (and somewhat IGF-I) adaptations to resistance training are concurrent with muscle stretch, which warrants its inclusion within training.


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