Volume #36



Hey dudes and dudettes!


Finally time for a new geeky Friday! I decided to put all Geeky Friday posts under a separate heading on the site to avoid the clutter among the other articles.


If you are new to the site, you can find out what the Geeky Fridays is all about right HERE.


So this week has been very busy for me, apart from working crazy hours in the ER, I finally released my LIZA training program (get it if you haven’t, the response has been great).

–> Just enter your mail in the opt in box to your right and you’ll get access like NOW.


I also managed to squeeze in an article about auto regulation and why you shouldn’t use it as an excuse to skip your training sessions.

–> Read the article HERE if you missed it.


Before, you kick off your amazing weekend; here are abstracts from some of the latest studies in the fitness world.


Now have an awesome weekend everyone!





Make sure you keep supporting my work by sharing this article with your friends and followers. We need to spread the science and integrate it with the massive amounts of personal experience that is already out there- so we can make the best and most effective programs for ourselves and our clients. Also, hit me up on Facebook,Twitter and Google+. Interacting with like-minded on day to day basis is one of the main reasons I run this site. Lastly, feel free to leave any questions or feedback in the comments below; I look much forward to hearing from you.


Alternate day fasting and endurance exercise combine to reduce body weight and favorably alter plasma lipids in obese humans.

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Feb 14;

Authors: Bhutani S, Klempel MC, Kroeger CM, Trepanowski JF, Varady KA

Abstract: Objective: This study examined whether the combination of Alternate day fasting (ADF) plus exercise produces superior changes in body composition and plasma lipid levels when compared to each intervention alone. Designs and Methods: Obese subjects (n = 64) were randomized to 1 of 4 groups for 12 weeks: 1) combination (ADF plus endurance exercise), 2) ADF, 3) exercise, or 4) control. Results: Body weight was reduced (P < 0.05) by 6 ± 4 kg, 3 ± 1 kg, and 1 ± 0 kg in the combination, ADF, and exercise group, respectively. Fat mass and waist circumference decreased (P < 0.001) while lean mass was retained in the combination group. LDL cholesterol decreased (12 ± 5%, P < 0.05) and HDL cholesterol increased (18 ± 9%, P < 0.05) in the combination group only. LDL particle size increased (P < 0.001) by 4 ± 1 Å and 5 ± 1 Å in the combination and ADF group, respectively. The proportion of small HDL particles decreased (P < 0.01) in the combination group only. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the combination produces superior changes in body weight, body composition, and lipid indicators of heart disease risk, when compared to individual treatments


Meal frequency differentially alters postprandial triacylglycerol and insulin concentrations in obese women.

 Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013 Jan;21(1):123-9

Authors: Heden TD, Liu Y, Sims LJ, Whaley-Connell AT, Chockalingam A, Dellsperger KC, Kanaley JA

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare postprandial lipemia, oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, and insulinemia between a three and six isocaloric high-carbohydrate meal frequency pattern in obese women.
DESIGN AND METHODS: In a counterbalanced order, eight obese women completed two, 12-h conditions in which they consumed 1,500 calories (14% protein, 21% fat, and 65% carbohydrate) either as three 500 calorie liquid meals every 4-h or six 250 calorie liquid meals every 2-h. Blood samples were taken every 30 min and analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, myeloperoxidase, paraoxonase-1 activity, and insulin.
RESULTS: The TAG incremental area under the curve (iAUC) during the three meal condition (321 ± 129 mg/dl·12 h) was significantly lower (P = 0.04) compared with the six meal condition (481 ± 155 mg/dl·12 h). The insulin iAUC during the three meal condition (5,549 ± 1,007 pmol/l(.) 12 h) was significantly higher (P = 0.05) compared with the six meal condition (4,230 ± 757 pmol/l(.) 12 h). Meal frequency had no influence on the other biochemical variables.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, a three and six isocaloric high-carbohydrate meal frequency pattern differentially alters postprandial TAG and insulin concentrations but has no effect on postprandial cholesterol, oxidative stress, or antioxidant activity in obese women.


Effects of increased meal frequency on fat oxidation and perceived hunger.

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Sep 13;

Authors: Ohkawara K, Cornier MA, Kohrt WM, Melanson EL

Abstract: Consuming smaller, more frequent meals is often advocated as a means of controlling body weight, but studies demonstrating a mechanistic effect of this practice on factors associated with body weight regulation are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of consuming 3 (3M) vs. 6 meals (6M) per day on 24-h fat oxidation and subjective ratings of hunger. Lean (BMI<25 kg/m(2) ) subjects (7M, 8F) were studied in a whole-room calorimeter on two occasions in a randomized cross-over design. Subjects were provided isoenergetic, energy balanced diets with a 1- to 2-week washout between conditions. Hunger, fullness, and ‘desire to eat’ ratings were assessed throughout the day using visual analog scales and quantified as area under the curve (AUC). There were no differences (P>0.05) in 24 h EE (8.7 ± 0.3 vs. 8.6 ± 0.3 mj(.) d(-1) ), 24 h RQ (0.85 ± 0.01 vs. 0.85 ± 0.01) or 24 h fat oxidation (82 ± 6 vs. 80 ± 7 g(.) day(-1) ) between 3M and6M, respectively. There was no difference in fullness24 h AUC, but hunger AUC (41850 ± 2255 vs. 36612 ± 2556 mm(.) 24 h, P=0.03) and ‘desire to eat’ AUC (47061 ± 1791 vs. 41170 ± 2574 mm(.) 24 h, P=0.03) were greater during 6M than 3M. We conclude that increasing meal frequency from3 to 6 per day has no significant effect on 24 h fat oxidation, but may increase hunger and the desire to eat.


 Effects of acute and chronic low-volume high-intensity interval exercise on cardiovascular health in patients with coronary artery disease.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2013 Mar;38(3):359

Authors: Currie KD

Abstract: The merits of low-volume high-intensity interval exercise (HIT) have been established in healthy populations; however, no studies have examined this exercise prescription in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The present thesis examined the acute and chronic effects of HIT in patients with CAD. The first study demonstrated transient improvements in brachial artery endothelial-dependent function, which was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) 60 min following a single bout of either HIT or moderate-intensity endurance exercise (END) in habitually active patients. The second study demonstrated no effects of training status on the acute endothelial responses to exercise; following 12-weeks of either HIT or END training. However, there was a significant reduction in endothelial-independent function immediately postexercise, at both pre- and post-training, which requires further examination. The third study demonstrated comparable increases in fitness and resting FMD following 12-weeks of END and HIT, lending support to the notion that favourable adaptations are obtainable with a smaller volume of exercise. Finally, the fourth study demonstrated no change in heart rate recovery following 12-weeks of END and HIT. However, pre-training heart rate recovery values reported by our sample were in a low risk range, which suggests training induced improvements may only be achievable in populations with attenuated pre-training values. The results of this thesis provide preliminary evidence that supports the use of HIT in patients with CAD. The findings of favourable transient and chronic improvements following HIT are notable, especially given that the HIT protocol involves less time and work than END, which was modelled after the current exercise prescription in cardiac rehabilitation. Further investigations are necessary, including the assessment of additional physiological indices; the feasibility and adherence to HIT; the inclusion of CAD populations with comorbidities, including heart failure and diabetes; as well as other forms of HIT training, including HIT combined with resistance training.


Exercise Training for Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2(1):e004473

Authors: Cornelissen VA, Smart NA

Abstract: BACKGROUND: We conducted meta-analyses examining the effects of endurance, dynamic resistance, combined endurance and resistance training, and isometric resistance training on resting blood pressure (BP) in adults. The aims were to quantify and compare BP changes for each training modality and identify patient subgroups exhibiting the largest BP changes.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Randomized controlled trials lasting ≥4 weeks investigating the effects of exercise on BP in healthy adults (age ≥18 years) and published in a peer-reviewed journal up to February 2012 were included. Random effects models were used for analyses, with data reported as weighted means and 95% confidence interval. We included 93 trials, involving 105 endurance, 29 dynamic resistance, 14 combined, and 5 isometric resistance groups, totaling 5223 participants (3401 exercise and 1822 control). Systolic BP (SBP) was reduced after endurance (-3.5 mm Hg [confidence limits -4.6 to -2.3]), dynamic resistance (-1.8 mm Hg [-3.7 to -0.011]), and isometric resistance (-10.9 mm Hg [-14.5 to -7.4]) but not after combined training. Reductions in diastolic BP (DBP) were observed after endurance (-2.5 mm Hg [-3.2 to -1.7]), dynamic resistance (-3.2 mm Hg [-4.5 to -2.0]), isometric resistance (-6.2 mm Hg [-10.3 to -2.0]), and combined (-2.2 mm Hg [-3.9 to -0.48]) training. BP reductions after endurance training were greater (P<0.0001) in 26 study groups of hypertensive subjects (-8.3 [-10.7 to -6.0]/-5.2 [-6.8 to -3.4] mm Hg) than in 50 groups of prehypertensive subjects (-2.1 [-3.3 to -0.83]/-1.7 [-2.7 to -0.68]) and 29 groups of subjects with normal BP levels (-0.75 [-2.2 to +0.69]/-1.1 [-2.2 to -0.068]). BP reductions after dynamic resistance training were largest for prehypertensive participants (-4.0 [-7.4 to -0.5]/-3.8 [-5.7 to -1.9] mm Hg) compared with patients with hypertension or normal BP.
CONCLUSION: Endurance, dynamic resistance, and isometric resistance training lower SBP and DBP, whereas combined training lowers only DBP. Data from a small number of isometric resistance training studies suggest this form of training has the potential for the largest reductions in SBP.

Testosterone Signals through mTOR and Androgen Receptor to Induce Muscle Hypertrophy.

 Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2013 Mar 6;

Authors: Basualto-Alarcón C, Jorquera G, Altamirano F, Jaimovich E, Estrada M

Abstract: Purpose: The anabolic hormone testosterone induces muscle hypertrophy, but the intracellular mechanisms involved are poorly known. We addressed the question whether signal transduction pathways other than the androgen receptor are necessary to elicit hypertrophy in skeletal muscle myotubes. Methods: Cultured rat skeletal muscle myotubes were pre-incubated with inhibitors for ERK1/2 (PD98059), PI3K/Akt (LY294002 and Akt-inhibitor-VIII) or mTOR/S6K1 (rapamycin), and then stimulated with 100 nM testosterone. The expression of α-actin and the phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2, Akt and S6K1 (a downstream target for mTOR), were measured by Western Blot. mRNA levels were evaluated by qRT-PCR. Myotube size and sarcomerization were determined by confocal microscopy. Inhibition of androgen receptor was assessed by bicalutamide. Results: Testosterone induced myotube hypertrophy was assessed as: increased myotube cross sectional area, increased α-actin mRNA and α-actin protein levels, with no changes in mRNA expression of atrogenes (MAFbx and MuRF-1). Morphological development of myotube sarcomeres was evident in testosterone stimulated myotubes. Known hypertrophy signalling pathways were studied at short times: ERK1/2 and Akt showed an increase in phosphorylation status after testosterone stimulus at 5 and 15 minutes, respectively. S6K1 was phosphorylated at 60 minutes. This response was abolished by PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibition but not by ERK1/2 inhibition. Similarly, the cross sectional area increase at 12 hours was abolished by inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt pathway as well as by androgen receptor inhibition. Conclusions: These results suggest a cross talk between pathways involving fast intracellular signalling and the androgen receptor to explain testosterone-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.


The Evolution of a Canadian Hypertension Education Program Recommendation: The Impact of Resistance Training on Resting Blood Pressure in Adults as an Example.

Can J Cardiol. 2013 Mar 29;

Authors: Rossi AM, Moullec G, Lavoie KL, Gour-Provençal G, Bacon SL

Abstract: Ever since the first set of hypertension recommendations which were generated from the Canadian Hypertension Education Program, lifestyle and health behaviour have been a key focus. An initial recommendation focused on the benefits of aerobic exercise to reduce resting blood pressure (BP). However, until the 2013 edition, resistance exercise (RT) was not included. The current article describes a meta-analysis that was conducted which helped inform the creation of the newly introduced recommendation. Literature searches were conducted in 4 electronic databases. Inclusion criteria included: (1) randomized controlled trials with 4-week minimum, RT-alone intervention arms; (2) BP-lowering as the primary outcome; (3) human, adult participants; and (4) reporting control data, baseline, and postintervention resting systolic BP and diastolic BP. Nine studies (11 intervention groups, 452 participants) were identified. The analyses indicated that diastolic BP was significantly reduced (-2.2 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -3.9 to -0.5) in those randomized to RT compared with control participants. In contrast, no statistically significant change in systolic BP (-1.0 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -3.4 to 1.4) was observed. None of the studies found RT to increase BP and no adverse effects of RT were explicitly reported. Results suggest that participation in RT is not harmful and does not increase BP. However, more evidence is needed before recommending RT as a specific BP-lowering therapy.



J Strength Cond Res. 2013 Mar 27

Authors: Evaggelos M, Athanasios K, Konstantinos M, Vasileios K, Eleftherios K

Abstract: The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of a resistance exercise program on soccer kick biomechanics. Twenty male amateur soccer players were divided in the Experimental (EG) and the Control (CG) group, each consisting of ten players. The EG followed a 10-week resistance exercise program mainly for the lower limb muscles. Maximal instep kick kinematics, electromyography and ground reaction forces (GRFs) as well as maximum isometric leg strength were recorded before and after training. A two-way analysis of variance showed significantly higher ball speed values only for the EG (26.14 ± 1.17 m/sec versus 27.59 ± 1.49 m/sec before and after training, respectively), while no significant differences were observed for the CG. The EG showed a decline in joint angular velocities and an increase in biceps femoris EMG of the swinging leg during the backswing phase followed by a significant increase in segmental and joint velocities and muscle activation of the same leg during the forward swing phase (P < 0.05). The EG also showed significantly higher vertical GRFs and rectus femoris and gastrocnemius activation of the support leg (P < 0.05). Similarly, maximum and explosive isometric force significantly increased after training only for the EG (P < 0.05). These results suggest that increases in soccer kicking performance after a 10-week resistance training program were accompanied by increases in maximum strength as well as an altered soccer kick movement pattern, characterized by a more explosive backward – forward swinging movement and higher muscle activation during the final kicking phase.


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One comment on “Volume #36
  1. Finn says:

    Interesting that increased meal frequency leads to increased hunger & desire to eat, since this eating pattern is so often touted as a way to reduce hunger & desire to eat. I do wonder, though, if the desired effect might be achieved with a longer trial that allows subjects to grow more accustomed to smaller, more frequent meals. I’ve tried to make the change myself (for insulin regulation, not weight loss) and found it very difficult to stop eating before achieving the usual sensation of fullness.

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