Volume #33

Hey Guys and welcome back!

Did you grab that Cheesecake I posted last week? Sure hope you enjoyed it.

Anyway, here are a few brand new abstracts for you. There is something on IF, Diabetes, Core training, and more. Dig in bud!

Have an awesome weekend, talk to you soon!


Make sure you keep supporting my work by sharing this article with your friends and followers. We need to spread the science and integrate it with the massive amounts of personal experience that is already out there-  so we can make the best and most effective programs for ourselves and our clients. Also, hit me up on Facebook,Twitter and Google+. Interacting with like-minded on day to day basis is one of the main reasons I run this site. Lastly, feel free to leave any questions or feedback in the comments below; I look much forward to hearing from you.

Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women.

Nutr J. 2012 Nov 21;11(1):98

Authors: Klempel MC, Kroeger CM, Bhutani S, Trepanowski JF, Varady KA

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF; severe restriction 1 d/week) facilitates weight loss and improves coronary heart disease (CHD) risk indicators. The degree to which weight loss can be enhanced if IF is combined with calorie restriction (CR) and liquid meals, remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of IF plus CR (with or without a liquid diet) on body weight, body composition, and CHD risk. METHODS: Obese women (n = 54) were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L) or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F) diet. The trial had two phases: 1) 2-week weight maintenance period, and 2) 8-week weight loss period. RESULTS: Body weight decreased more (P = 0.04) in the IFCR-L group (3.9 +/- 1.4 kg) versus the IFCR-F group (2.5 +/- 0.6 kg). Fat mass decreased similarly (P < 0.0001) in the IFCR-L and IFCR-F groups (2.8 +/- 1.2 kg and 1.9 +/- 0.7 kg, respectively). Visceral fat was reduced (P < 0.001) by IFCR-L (0.7 +/- 0.5 kg) and IFCR-F (0.3 +/- 0.5 kg) diets. Reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels were greater (P = 0.04) in the IFCR-L (19 +/- 10%; 20 +/- 9%, respectively) versus the IFCR-F group (8 +/- 3%; 7 +/- 4%, respectively). LDL peak particle size increased (P < 0.01), while heart rate, glucose, insulin, and homocysteine decreased (P < 0.05), in the IFCR-L group only. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that IF combined with CR and liquid meals is an effective strategy to help obese women lose weight and lower CHD risk.

Acute exercise increases feeding latency in healthy normal weight young males but does not alter energy intake.

Appetite. 2012 Nov 5;

Authors: King JA, Wasse LK, Stensel DJ

Abstract: This study investigated the acute influence of exercise on eating behaviour in an ecologically valid setting whereby healthy active males were permitted complete ad libitum access to food. Ten healthy males completed two, eight hour trials (exercise and control) in a randomised-crossover design. In the exercise trials participants consumed a breakfast snack and then rested for one hour before undertaking a 60 min run (72% of Vo(2) max) on a treadmill. Participants then rested in the laboratory for six hours during which time they were permitted complete ad libitum access to a buffet meal. The timing of meals, energy/macronutrient intake and eating frequency were assessed. Identical procedures were completed in the control trial except no exercise was performed. Exercise increased the length of time (35 min) before participants voluntarily requested to eat afterwards. Despite this, energy intake at the first meal consumed, or at subsequent eating episodes, was not influenced by exercise (total trial energy intake: control 7426 kJ, exercise 7418 kJ). Neither was there any difference in macronutrient intake or meal frequency between trials. These results confirm that food intake remains unaffected by exercise in the immediate hours after but suggest that exercise may invoke a delay before food is desired.

The effects of isolated and integrated ‘core stability’ training on athletic performance measures: a systematic review.

Sports Med. 2012 Aug 1;42(8):697-706

Authors: Reed CA, Ford KR, Myer GD, Hewett TE

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Core stability training, operationally defined as training focused to improve trunk and hip control, is an integral part of athletic development, yet little is known about its direct relation to athletic performance.
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review focuses on identification of the association between core stability and sports-related performance measures. A secondary objective was to identify difficulties encountered when trying to train core stability with the goal of improving athletic performance.
DATA SOURCES: A systematic search was employed to capture all articles related to athletic performance and core stability training that were identified using the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus™ (1982-June 2011).
STUDY SELECTION: A systematic approach was used to evaluate 179 articles identified for initial review. Studies that performed an intervention targeted toward the core and measured an outcome related to athletic or sport performances were included, while studies with a participant population aged 65 years or older were excluded. Twenty-four in total met the inclusionary criteria for review.
STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Studies were evaluated using the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The 24 articles were separated into three groups, general performance (n = 8), lower extremity (n = 10) and upper extremity (n = 6), for ease of discussion.
RESULTS: In the majority of studies, core stability training was utilized in conjunction with more comprehensive exercise programmes. As such, many studies saw improvements in skills of general strengths such as maximum squat load and vertical leap. Surprisingly, not all studies reported measurable increases in specific core strength and stability measures following training. Additionally, investigations that targeted the core as the primary goal for improved outcome of training had mixed results.
LIMITATIONS: Core stability is rarely the sole component of an athletic development programme, making it difficult to directly isolate its affect on athletic performance. The population biases of some studies of athletic performance also confound the results.
CONCLUSIONS: Targeted core stability training provides marginal benefits to athletic performance. Conflicting findings and the lack of a standardization for measurement of outcomes and training focused to improve core strength and stability pose difficulties. Because of this, further research targeted to determine this relationship is necessary to better understand how core strength and stability affect athletic performance.

Effects of different types of acute and chronic (training) exercise on glycaemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

Sports Med. 2012 Dec 1;42(12):1059-80

Authors: Tonoli C, Heyman E, Roelands B, Buyse L, Cheung SS, Berthoin S, Meeusen R

Abstract: Objective: Exercise has been accepted and generally recommended for the management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and for improving the overall quality of life in affected individuals. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the overall effects of exercise (acute bouts of exercise and chronic exercise [or training]) on acute and chronic glycaemic control in patients with T1D, the effects of different types of exercise on glycaemic control and which conditions are required to obtain these positive effects. Methods: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and SPORTDiscus™ were consulted to identify studies on T1D and exercise. Cohen’s d statistics were used for calculating mean effect sizes (ES) as follows: small d = 0.3, medium d = 0.5 and large d = 0.8. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to establish the significance of our findings. Results: From a total of 937 studies, 33 that met the inclusion criteria were selected. Nine studies were used to calculate the ES of a single bout of aerobic exercise; 13 studies to calculate the ES of aerobic training; 2 studies to calculate the ES of strength training; 4 studies to calculate the ES of combined (aerobic and strength) training and 6 studies to calculate the ES of high-intensity exercise (HIE) and training. ES for exercise on acute glycaemic control were large, while they were small for chronic glycaemic control. Aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, mixed exercise (aerobic combined with resistance training) and HIE acutely decreased blood glucose levels. To prevent late-onset hypoglycaemic episodes, the use of single bouts of sprints into an aerobic exercise can be recommended. This meta-analysis also showed that a regular exercise training programme has a significant effect on acute and chronic glycaemic control, although not all exercise forms showed significant results. Specifically, aerobic training is a favourable tool for decreasing chronic glycaemic control, while resistance training, mixed and HIE did not significantly improve chronic glycaemic control. Although, this meta-analysis showed there was a tendency for improvement in glycaemic control due to resistance training or resistance training combined with endurance training, there were not enough studies and/or subjects to confirm this statistically. Conclusions: Based on this meta-analysis, we can conclude that the addition of brief bouts of high-intensity, sprint-type exercise to aerobic exercise can minimize the risk of sustaining a hypoglycaemic episode. We can also conclude that only regular aerobic training will improve the glycated haemoglobin level of a patient with T1D.

Protein supplementation augments the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training: a meta-analysis.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov 7;

Authors: Cermak NM, Res PT, de Groot LC, Saris WH, van Loon LJ

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Protein ingestion after a single bout of resistance-type exercise stimulates net muscle protein accretion during acute postexercise recovery. Consequently, it is generally accepted that protein supplementation is required to maximize the adaptive response of the skeletal muscle to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. However, there is much discrepancy in the literature regarding the proposed benefits of protein supplementation during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in younger and older populations. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to define the efficacy of protein supplementation to augment the adaptive response of the skeletal muscle to prolonged resistance-type exercise training in younger and older populations. DESIGN: A systematic review of interventional evidence was performed through the use of a random-effects meta-analysis model. Data from the outcome variables fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, type I and II muscle fiber cross-sectional area, and 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press strength were collected from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of dietary protein supplementation during prolonged (>6 wk) resistance-type exercise training. RESULTS: Data were included from 22 RCTs that included 680 subjects. Protein supplementation showed a positive effect for FFM (weighted mean difference: 0.69 kg; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.91 kg; P < 0.00001) and 1-RM leg press strength (weighted mean difference: 13.5 kg; 95% CI: 6.4, 20.7 kg; P < 0.005) compared with a placebo after prolonged resistance-type exercise training in younger and older subjects. CONCLUSION: Protein supplementation increases muscle mass and strength gains during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in both younger and older subjects.

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