So what the hell is this? A Geeky Friday…on a Sunday? Well, unfortunately I caught a high fever and got sick this Friday. Since I am Batman I decided it was probably no big deal and went out to party.
I’ll leave the rest to your imagination but 48 hours later; here I am with the latest fitness research for you guys!
Before you dig in let me just remind you that I posted another article this last week about fitness procrastination and how to deal with it. Check that out first in case you haven’t!
So what is next on Lift-Heavy.com? I have finished another article that I plan on releasing very soon but I need to give something back to you guys first. As a big thank you for all the support lately, I believe it’s about time I post another cheesecake recipe
You ask – I deliver!
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In sickness and in health: the widespread application of creatine supplementation.
Amino Acids. 2012 Aug;43(2):519-29
Authors: Gualano B, Roschel H, Lancha-Jr AH, Brightbill CE, Rawson ES
Abstract: There is an extensive and still growing body of the literature supporting the efficacy of creatine (Cr) supplementation. In sports, creatine has been recognized as the most effective nutritional supplement in enhancing exercise tolerance, muscle strength and lean body mass. From a clinical perspective, the application of Cr supplementation is indeed exciting. Evidences of benefits from this supplement have been reported in a broad range of diseases, including myopathies, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, rheumatic diseases, and type 2 diabetes. In addition, after hundreds of published studies and millions of exposures creatine supplementation maintains an excellent safety profile. Thus, we contend that the widespread application of this supplement may benefit athletes, elderly people and various patient populations. In this narrative review, we aimed to summarize both the ergogenic and therapeutic effects of Cr supplementation. Furthermore, we reviewed the impact of Cr supplementation on kidney function.
The influence of resistance bands on frontal plane knee mechanics during body-weight squat and vertical jump movements.
Sports Biomech. 2012 Sep;11(3):391-401
Authors: Gooyers CE, Beach TA, Frost DM, Callaghan JP
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of wearing a resistance band around the distal thigh on frontal plane knee mechanics during bodyweight squat and jumping exercises. Three closed-kinetic-chain exercises were examined, including: (1) bodyweight squat, (2) countermovement jump, and (3) squat jump. For each exercise, three experimental conditions were tested: (1) control condition with no band; (2) light-tension band applied around the distal thighs; and (3) medium-tension band applied around the distal thighs. Two dependent measures were used for analyses: (1) knee width normalized to ankle width and (2) peak external knee moment. In the absence of any feedback, application of the resistance bands failed to promote ‘neutral’ knee alignment when squatting and jumping. The stiffest resistance band resulted in significantly lower (p = 0.002) peak-width index values during the ascent phase of the countermovement jump. Additionally, the use of the medium-tension band resulted in significantly larger (p = 0.002) peak knee abduction moments compared to the no bands condition during the descent portion of the bodyweight squat and countermovement jump exercises. These findings conflict with previous clinical case reports on the proprioceptive response induced by resistance bands.
Blood flow restricted exercise and vascular function.
Int J Vasc Med. 2012;2012:543218
Authors: Horiuchi M, Okita K
Abstract: It is established that regular aerobic training improves vascular function, for example, endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and arterial stiffness or compliance and thereby constitutes a preventative measure against cardiovascular disease. In contrast, high-intensity resistance training impairs vascular function, while the influence of moderate-intensity resistance training on vascular function is still controversial. However, aerobic training is insufficient to inhibit loss in muscular strength with advancing age; thus, resistance training is recommended to prevent sarcopenia. Recently, several lines of study have provided compelling data showing that exercise and training with blood flow restriction (BFR) leads to muscle hypertrophy and strength increase. As such, BFR training might be a novel means of overcoming the contradiction between aerobic and high-intensity resistance training. Although it is not enough evidence to obtain consensus about impact of BFR training on vascular function, available evidences suggested that BFR training did not change coagulation factors and arterial compliance though with inconsistence results in endothelial function. This paper is a review of the literature on the impact of BFR exercise and training on vascular function, such as endothelial function, arterial compliance, or other potential factors in comparison with those of aerobic and resistance training.
Effects of intensive strength-power training on sense of coherence among 60-85-year-old people with hip fracture: a randomized controlled trial.
Aging Clin Exp Res. 2012 Jun;24(3):295-9
Authors: Pakkala I, Read S, Sipilä S, Portegijs E, Kallinen M, Heinonen A, Alen M, Kiviranta I, Rantanen T
Abstract: BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Older people with disabilities are at increased risk of psychological health decline. There are no earlier studies on the effects of resistance training on sense of coherence (SOC) among older people with a history of hip fracture. The aim of this study is to test the effects of intensive 12-week strength-power training on SOC among older adults after hip fracture.
METHODS: A clinical sample of 60-85-year-old community-dwelling men and women was studied, 0.5. to 7.0 years after hip fracture. Forty-six had no contraindications for participation and were randomized into training (n=24) and control groups (n=22). The training group participated in a 12-week, individually tailored, strength-power training program, twice a week in a senior gym and supervised by an experienced physiotherapist. SOC was assessed with Antonovsky’s short 13-item scale. Data were collected at baseline and after intervention.
RESULTS: Intensive 12-week strength-power training had no effect on participants’ SOC level.
CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated no change in SOC after 12-week physical exercise training among participants after hip fracture. Further studies on SOC among older people with disabilities and potential ways of increasing it are needed.
Exercise-induced stress resistance is independent of exercise controllability and the medial prefrontal cortex.
Eur J Neurosci. 2012 Nov 4;
Authors: Greenwood BN, Spence KG, Crevling DM, Clark PJ, Craig WC, Fleshner M
Abstract: Exercise increases resistance against stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression. Similarly, the perception of control is a powerful predictor of neurochemical and behavioral responses to stress, but whether the experience of choosing to exercise, and exerting control over that exercise, is a critical factor in producing exercise-induced stress resistance is unknown. The current studies investigated whether the protective effects of exercise against the anxiety- and depression-like consequences of stress are dependent on exercise controllability and a brain region implicated in the protective effects of controllable experiences, the medial prefrontal cortex. Adult male Fischer 344 rats remained sedentary, were forced to run on treadmills or motorised running wheels, or had voluntary access to wheels for 6 weeks. Three weeks after exercise onset, rats received sham surgery or excitotoxic lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex. Rats were exposed to home cage or uncontrollable tail shock treatment three weeks later. Shock-elicited fear conditioning and shuttle box escape testing occurred the next day. Both forced and voluntary wheel running, but not treadmill training, prevented the exaggerated fear conditioning and interference with escape learning produced by uncontrollable stress. Lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex failed to eliminate the protective effects of forced or voluntary wheel running. These data suggest that exercise controllability and the medial prefrontal cortex are not critical factors in conferring the protective effects of exercise against the affective consequences of stressor exposure, and imply that exercise perceived as forced may still benefit affect and mental health.
Bradykinin type 2 receptor -9/-9 genotype is associated with triceps brachii muscle hypertrophy following strength training in young healthy men.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012 Nov 6;13(1):217
Authors: Gacesa JZ, Momcilovic M, Veselinovic I, Brodie DA, Grujic NG
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Bradykinin type 2 receptor (B2BRK) genotype was reported to be associated with changes in the left-ventricular mass as a response to aerobic training, as well as in the regulation of the skeletal muscle performance in both athletes and non-athletes. However, there are no reports on the effect of B2BRK 9-bp polymorphism on the response of the skeletal muscle to strength training, and our aim was to determine the relationship between the B2BRK SNP and triceps brachii functional and morphological adaptation to programmed physical activity in young adults. METHODS: In this 6-week pretest-posttest exercise intervention study, twenty nine healthy young men (21.5 +/- 2.7 y, BMI 24.2 +/- 3.5 kg/m2) were put on a 6-week exercise protocol using an isoacceleration dynamometer (5 times a week, 5 daily sets with 10 maximal elbow extensions, 1 minute rest between sets). Triceps brachii muscle volumes were assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging before and after the strength training. Bradykinin type 2 receptor 9 base pair polymorphism was determined for all participants. RESULTS: Following the elbow extensors training, an average increase in the volume of both triceps brachii was 5.4 +/- 3.4% (from 929.5 +/- 146.8 cm3 pre-training to 977.6 +/- 140.9 cm3 after training, p<0.001). Triceps brachii volume increase was significantly larger in individuals homozygous for -9 allele compared to individuals with one or two +9 alleles (-9/-9, 8.5 +/- 3.8%; vs. -9/+9 and +9/+9 combined, 4.7 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.05). Mean increases in endurance strength in response to training were 48.4 +/- 20.2 %, but the increases were not dependent on B2BRK genotype (-9/-9, 50.2 +/- 19.2%; vs. -9/+9 and +9/+9 combined, 46.8 +/- 20.7%, p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We found that muscle morphological response to targeted training — hypertrophy — is related to polymorphisms of B2BRK. However, no significant influence of different B2BRK genotypes on functional muscle properties after strength training in young healthy non athletes was found. This finding could be relevant, not only in predicting individual muscle adaptation capacity to training or sarcopenia related to aging and inactivity, but also in determining new therapeutic strategies targeting genetic control of muscle function, especially for neuromuscular disorders that are characterized by progressive adverse changes in muscle quality, mass, strength and force production (e.g., muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease).
Corticomotor plasticity following unilateral strength training.
Muscle Nerve. 2012 Sep;46(3):384-93
Authors: Goodwill AM, Pearce AJ, Kidgell DJ
Abstract: INTRODUCTION: We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate 3 weeks of unilateral leg strength training on ipsilateral motor cortex (iM1) excitability, and short-latency intracortical inhibition (SICI).
METHODS: Right leg dominant participants (n = 14) were randomly divided into either a strength training (ST) or control group. The ST group completed 9 training sessions (4 sets of 6 to 8 repetitions of single right leg squats).
RESULTS: We observed a 41% increase in right leg strength, and a 35% increase in strength of the untrained left leg (P < 0.01). There was a significant increase in motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude recruitment curve for the untrained left leg (P < 0.01). SICI of the iM1 decreased by 21% for the untrained left leg (P < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide evidence for corticomotor adaptation for unilateral leg strength training within the iM1 that is modulated by changes in interhemispheric inhibition.
Early inflammatory and myogenic responses to resistance exercise in the elderly.
Muscle Nerve. 2012 Sep;46(3):407-12
Authors: Mathers JL, Farnfield MM, Garnham AP, Caldow MK, Cameron-Smith D, Peake JM
Abstract: INTRODUCTION AND METHODS: This study compared changes in myokine and myogenic genes following resistance exercise (3 sets of 12 repetitions of maximal unilateral knee extension) in 20 elderly men (67.8 ± 1.0 years) and 15 elderly women (67.2 ± 1.5 years).
RESULTS: Monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inhibitory protein (MIP)-1β, interleukin (IL)-6 and MyoD mRNA increased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas myogenin and myostatin mRNA decreased significantly after exercise in both groups. Macrophage-1 (Mac-1) and MCP-3 mRNA did not change significantly after exercise in either group. MIP-1β, Mac-1 and myostatin mRNA were significantly higher before and after exercise in men compared with women. In contrast, MCP-3 and myogenin mRNA were significantly higher before and after exercise in the women compared with the men.
CONCLUSIONS: In elderly individuals, gender influences the mRNA expression of certain myokines and growth factors, both at rest and after resistance exercise. These differences may influence muscle regeneration following muscle injury.
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