Volume #2

Hey guys!

 Hope you’ve had an awesome week. Mine sure was – busy as usual but I also managed to squeeze in some awesome training and reached a few PRs and long term goals. I hope to get a fresh article out for you in a few days as well. Any specific topic you’d like me to cover – fell free to shoot me an email or hit me up on FacebookTwitter or Google+.

The first edition of Geeky Friday turned out to be quite a success and I got a lot of positive feedback. Which is why I decided to do a new edition this week. As long as you keep reading – I’ll keep providing you with some fresh interesting papers from the training/nutrition world. Enough talking – here’s what you need to end the week a bit smarter then you started!

Acute Effects of Distribution of Rest between Repetitions.

Int J Sports Med. 2012 Feb 8;

Authors: Iglesias-Soler E, Carballeira E, Sánchez-Otero T, Mayo X, Jiménez A, Chapman ML

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare acute mechanical and metabolic effects of 2 sessions of resistance training equated by volume and total resting time but with different set configuration: sets to failure (FS) vs. distribution of rest between each repetition (NFS). 10 male judoists completed a session consisting of 3 sets to failure of parallel back squat with 4 repetitions at maximum load, and a rest of 3 min between the sets. At least 72 h later subjects developed the same volume, but total resting time was distributed among individual repetitions. Before and after sessions isometric force and mean propulsive velocity with load corresponding to maximum propulsive power were assessed. Results showed that in respect to FS, NFS showed an 18.94% (±17.98) higher average mean propulsive velocity during session (0.42±0.04 vs. 0.35±0.08 m.s - 1; p=0.009), lower blood lactate concentration after session (maximum average value 1.52±0.77 vs. 3.95±1.82; session effect: p=0.001) and higher mean propulsive velocity with load corresponding to maximum propulsive power (mean propulsive velocity immediately after session 0.64±0.09 vs. 0.59±0.12 m.s - 1; session effect: p=0.019). These data show that distribution of rest in sessions equated for volume and total resting time determines differences in performance during sessions and mechanical or metabolic acute effects.

Effect of Different Pushing Speeds on Bench Press.

Int J Sports Med. 2012 Feb 8;

Authors: Padulo J, Mignogna P, Mignardi S, Tonni F, D’Ottavio S

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on muscular strength after a 3-week training with the bench-press at a fixed pushing of 80-100% maximal speed (FPS) and self-selected pushing speed (SPS). 20 resistance-trained subjects were divided at random in 2 groups differing only regarding the pushing speed: in the FPS group (n=10) it was equal to 80-100% of the maximal speed while in the SPS group (n=10) the pushing speed was self-selected. Both groups were trained twice a week for 3 weeks with a load equal to 85% of 1RM and monitored with the encoder. Before and after the training we measured pushing speed and maximum load. Significant differences between and within the 2 groups were pointed out using a 2-way ANOVA for repeated measures. After 3 weeks a significant improvement was shown especially in the FPS group: the maximum load improved by 10.20% and the maximal speed by 2.22%, while in the SPS group the effect wasPMID: 22318559 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]

Fish-oil supplementation enhances the effects of strength training in elderly women.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Feb;95(2):428-36. Epub 2012 Jan 4.

Authors: Rodacki CL et al.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Muscle force and functional capacity generally decrease with aging in the older population, although this effect can be reversed, attenuated, or both through strength training. Fish oil (FO), which is rich in n-3 (omega-3) PUFAs, has been shown to play a role in the plasma membrane and cell function of muscles, which may enhance the benefits of training. The effect of strength training and FO supplementation on the neuromuscular system of the elderly has not been investigated.
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate the chronic effect of FO supplementation and strength training on the neuromuscular system (muscle strength and functional capacity) of older women.
DESIGN: Forty-five women (aged 64 ± 1.4 y) were randomly assigned to 3 groups. One group performed strength training only (ST group) for 90 d, whereas the others performed the same strength-training program and received FO supplementation (2 g/d) for 90 d (ST90 group) or for 150 d (ST150 group; supplemented 60 d before training). Muscle strength and functional capacity were assessed before and after the training period. Results: No differences in the pretraining period were found between groups for any of the variables. The peak torque and rate of torque development for all muscles (knee flexor and extensor, plantar and dorsiflexor) increased from pre- to posttraining in all groups. However, the effect was greater in the ST90 and ST150 groups than in the ST group. The activation level and electromechanical delay of the muscles changed from pre- to posttraining only for the ST90 and ST150 groups. Chair-rising performance in the FO groups was higher than in the ST group.
CONCLUSIONS: Strength training increased muscle strength in elderly women. The inclusion of FO supplementation caused greater improvements in muscle strength and functional capacity

Functional and morphological changes in the quadriceps muscle induced by eccentric training after ACL reconstruction.

Rev Bras Fisioter. 2011 Aug-Sep;15(4):284-90

Authors: Brasileiro JS, Pinto OM, Avila MA, Salvini TF
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the contributions of functional and morphological factors in the recovery of the quadriceps muscle after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.
METHODS: Nine subjects (31.3±5.8 years) underwent eccentric exercise sessions twice a week for 12 weeks. Quadriceps muscle function was evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer (isometric and eccentric peak torque) and electromyography (RMS). Morphological changes were measured using magnetic resonance imaging.
RESULTS: The initial evaluation showed a significant deficit in knee extensor torque in the involved limb and significant muscle atrophy along the length of the quadriceps. EMG activity was lower in all tested situations. Eccentric training significantly increased isokinetic torque (from 199±51 to 240±63, p CONCLUSIONS: 1) eccentric training proved to be a potent resource for the quadriceps recovery, both morphologically and functionally, 2) the contributions of functional and morphological factors varied according to the length of training.

Rotator cuff re-tear or non-healing: histopathological aspects and predictive factors.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011 Sep;19(9):1588-96

Authors: Chillemi C, Petrozza V, Garro L, Sardella B, Diotallevi R, Ferrara A, Gigante A, Di Cristofano C, Castagna A, Della Rocca C

Abstract: PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the histopathological changes that occur in the tendon and subacromial bursal tissue in patients with rotator cuff tear trying to correlate these changes to their healing capability.
METHODS: Eighty-four patients were clinically evaluated with the Constant Scale. Radiographs and MRI were performed preoperatively and ultrasound were performed postoperatively. For each patient, a biopsy of the supraspinatus tendon and subacromial bursa was performed, and the specimens were histopathologically analyzed.
RESULTS: Tendons histopathological features consisted of loss of structural organization, poor or absent neoangiogenesis, chondral metaplasia, and fibrosis. Bursal features consisted of neoangiogenesis, absence of chondral metaplasia, hyperplasia/hypertrophy, and absence of necrosis. Direct correlation was seen between tendon and bursal hyperplasia and time of the onset of symptoms; between tendon chondral metaplasia, fibrosis, bursal neoangiogenesis, inflammation, and patient age; between tendon neoangiogenesis, hyperplasia, necrosis, fibrosis, bursal necrosis, inflammation, and lesion size; on the contrary, tendon fibrosis, necrosis, and bursal tissue inflammation decrease as time passes from the onset of symptoms. Tendon fibers disarray, neoangiogenesis, and inflammation decreases as the patient’s age increases. Bursal tissue fibrosis decreases as lesion size increases.
CONCLUSIONS: Simple histopathological techniques should be employed routinely to assess the tissue quality, with the aim to predict future clinical evolution (repair or non-repair). Comparing the histopathological data with the demographical information and the descriptive statistics, it is possible to define the RCT repair at risk and identify which RCT will be able to heal.

Early-phase muscular adaptations in response to slow-speed versus traditional resistance-training regimens.

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012 Feb 12;

Authors: Schuenke MD, Herman JR, Gliders RM, Hagerman FC, Hikida RS, Rana SR, Ragg KE, Staron RS

Abstract:Thirty-four untrained women participated in a 6-week program to investigate slow-speed versus “normal” speed resistance-training protocols. Subjects were divided into: slow-speed (SS), normal-speed/traditional-strength (TS), normal-speed/traditional muscular endurance (TE), and non-exercising control (C) groups. Leg press, squats, and knee extensions were performed 2 days/week for the first week and 3 days/week for the remaining 5 weeks (~2 min rest). The SS group performed 6-10 repetitions maximum (6-10RM) for each set with 10 s concentric (con) and 4 s eccentric (ecc) contractions. The TS and TE groups performed sets of 6-10RM and 20-30RM, respectively, at “normal” speed (1-2 s/con and ecc contractions). TE and SS trained at the same relative intensity (~40-60% 1RM), whereas TS trained at ~80-85% 1RM. Pre- and post-training muscle biopsies were analyzed for fiber-type composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), and myosin heavy chain (MHC) content. The percentage of type IIX fibers decreased and IIAX increased in all three training groups. However, only TS showed an increase in percentage of type IIA fibers. CSA of fiber types I, IIA, and IIX increased in TS. In SS, only the CSA of IIA and IIX fibers increased. These changes were supported by MHC data. No significant changes for any parameters were found for the C group. In conclusion, slow-speed strength training induced a greater adaptive response compared to training with a similar resistance at “normal” speed. However, training with a higher intensity at “normal” speed resulted in the greatest overall muscle fiber response in each of the variables assessed.

Sarcopenic obesity in the elderly and strategies for weight management.

Nutr Rev. 2012 Jan;70(1):57-64

Authors: Li Z, Heber D

Abstract: Sarcopenia is a multifactorial age-related condition associated with a sedentary lifestyle and protein intakes during weight loss that are inadequate to maintain muscle mass. Sarcopenic obesity in the elderly is associated with a loss of independence and metabolic complications and represents a major public health challenge in individuals over the age of 65 years. It is likely that age-related losses of muscle mass and coincident increases in fat mass could be reduced through regular resistance exercise combined with adequate protein intake to maintain muscle mass. It has been established that increased protein intake will maintain muscle mass during calorie-restricted diets to a greater extent than usual protein intake. Other strategies, including the use of high-protein meal replacements or supplementation with specific ergogenic or branched-chain amino acids, may be beneficial.

Chronic effect of light resistance exercise after ingestion of a high-protein snack on increase of skeletal muscle mass and strength in young adults.

J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2011;57(3):233-8

Authors: Kato Y, Sawada A, Numao S, Suzuki M
Abstract: We have previously reported on the possibility that light resistance exercise performed with a high plasma amino acid concentration resulting from the ingestion of a high-protein snack (HPS; 15 g protein, 18 g sugar) 3 h after a basal meal promotes the utilization of amino acids in peripheral tissues such as muscle in both rats and humans. In the present study, we further examined the effectiveness of a daily routine involving ingestion of HPS 3 h after a basal meal and subsequent light resistance exercise (dumbbell exercise) in increasing the mass and strength of human muscle. Ten young adult males were subject to the following 3 conditions for 5 wk each, with sufficient recovery period between each condition: (1) Snack-Exercise (SE), (2) Snack-Sedentary (SS), and (3) No snack-Exercise (NE). The SE group showed a significant increase in lean body mass and total cross-sectional area (CSA) of the right forearm muscles along with a significant decrease in body fat mass. The SS group showed no change in body composition. Furthermore, the SE group showed significant increase in grip strength and isometric knee extensor muscle strength, while the SS group showed no increase in muscle strength. The NE group showed significant increase in grip strength. In conclusion, daily routine ingestion of HPS 3 h after a basal meal and subsequent light resistance exercise is effective in increasing the mass and strength of human muscle.

Can a standard dose of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation reduce the symptoms of delayed onset of muscle soreness?

J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2012 Jan 31;9(1):2

Authors: Houghton D, Onambele GL

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Unaccustomed exercise can result in delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) which can affect athletic performance. Although DOMS is a useful tool to identify muscle damage and remodelling, prolonged symptoms of DOMS may be associated with the over-training syndrome. In order to reduce the symptoms of DOMS numerous management strategies have been attempted with no significant effect on DOMS-associated cytokines surge. The present study aimed to investigate the acute and chronic effects of a 2×180 mg per day dose of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated inflammatory response and symptoms associated with DOMS. Methods: Seventeen healthy non-smoking females (age 20.4 +/- 2.1 years, height 161.2 +/- 8.3cm and mass 61.48 +/- 7.4kg) were randomly assigned to either placebo (N = 10) or EPA (N = 7). Serum IL-6, isometric and isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) strength, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded on four occasions: i-prior to supplementation, ii-immediately after three weeks of supplementation (basal effects), iii-48 hours following a single bout of resistance exercise (acute training response effects), and iv-48 hours following the last of a series of three bouts of resistance exercise (chronic training response effects). Results: There was only a group difference in the degree of change in circulating IL-6 levels. In fact, relative to the first baseline, by the third bout of eccentric workout, the EPA group had 103 +/- 60% increment in IL-6 levels whereas the placebo group only had 80 +/- 26% incremented IL-6 levels (P = 0.020). We also describe a stable multiple linear regression model which included measures of strength and not IL-6 as predictors of RPE scale. Conclusion: The present study suggests that in doubling the standard recommended dose of EPA, whilst this may still not be beneficial at ameliorating the symptoms of DOMS, it counter intuitively appears to enhance the cytokine response to exercise. In a context where previous in vitro work has shown EPA to decrease the effects of inflammatory cytokines, it may in fact be that the doses required in vivo is much larger than current recommended amounts. An attempt to dampen the exercise-induced cytokine flux in fact results in an over-compensatory response of this system.

POWER OUTPUTS IN CONCENTRIC PHASE OF RESISTANCE EXERCISES PERFORMED IN INTERVAL MODE ON STABLE AND UNSTABLE SURFACE.

J Strength Cond Res. 2012 Jan 25;

Authors: Zemková E, Jeleň M, Kováčiková Z, Ollé G, Vilman T, Hamar D

Abstract:The study compares power outputs in concentric phase of chest presses and squats performed in interval mode on stable and unstable surface, respectively. A group of 16 physical education students performed randomly in different days 6 sets of 8 repetitions of a) chest presses on the bench and Swiss ball, respectively, and b) squats on stable support base and Bosu ball, respectively with 2 minutes of rest period between sets. The exercises were performed with previously established 70% of 1RM under stable conditions. A PC based system FiTRO Dyne Premium was used to monitor force and velocity and to calculate power. Results showed significantly lower power outputs when resistance exercises were performed on unstable than stable support base. In the initial set, mean power in concentric phase of lifting decreased more profoundly under unstable than stable conditions during both chest presses (13.2% and 7.7%, respectively) and squats (10.3% and 7.2%, respectively). In the final set, the reduction rates of mean power in concentric phase of chest presses were significantly (p

Now go read the studies you are interested in and get your geek on!

Enjoy your weekend!

In strength,

Bojan

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