Volume #10

Hey guys,

Time for yet another another edition of Geeky Friday. Hope you have all had an awesome week. I’ve been on vacation, basically doing nothing but sleeping, watching movies, doing some programming for some new fat loss clients, lifting heavy stuff, and spending time with friends and family. Hit a big squat PR this week as well so everything feels pretty damn good. I’ve made some insane progress training-wise these last six months, adding 20 kilos to my bench press and more than 30 kilos to my squat. Added about 10 kilos of body weight, abs still visible and quads still veiny. Officially starting my cut next week, can’t wait to see if there is a noticeable difference once the fat has been completely stripped of. I’ll keep you guys posted.

After my last cut

Ok, now lets get to the abstracts! Geek out friends, talk to you next week!

Make sure you share this article with your friends and followers. We need to spread the science and integrate it with the  massive amounts of personal experience that is already out there-  so we can make the best and most effective programs for ourselves and our clients. Also, hit me up on Facebook,Twitter and Google+. Interacting with like-minded on day to day basis is one of the main reasons I run this site. Lastly,  feel free to leave any questions or feedback in the comments below, I look much forward to hearing from you.

Have an awesome weekend everybody!

In strength,

Bojan

Effects of resistance or aerobic exercise training on total and regional body composition in sedentary overweight middle-aged adults.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2012 Apr 9;

Authors: Donges CE, Duffield R

Abstract:The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic endurance training (AET), resistance exercise training (RET), or a control (CON) condition on absolute and relative fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) in the total body (TB) and regions of interest (ROIs) of sedentary overweight middle-aged males and females. Following prescreening, 102 subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and strength and aerobic exercise testing. Randomized subjects (male RET, n = 16; female RET, n = 19; male AET, n = 16; and female AET, n = 25) completed supervised and periodized exercise programs (AET, 30-50 min cycling at 70%-75% maximal heart rate; RET, 2-4 sets × 8-10 repetitions of 5-7 exercises at 70%-75% 1 repetition maximum) or a nonexercising control condition (male CON, n = 13 and female CON, n = 13). Changes in absolute and relative TB-FM and TB-FFM and ROI-FM and ROI-FFM were determined. At baseline, and although matched for age and body mass index, males had greater strength, aerobic fitness, body mass, absolute and relative TB-FFM and ROI-FFM, but reduced absolute and relative TB-FM and ROI-FM, compared with females (p < 0.05). After training, both female exercise groups showed equivalent or greater relative improvements in strength and aerobic fitness than did the male exercise groups (p < 0.05); however, the male exercise groups increased TB-FFM and reduced TB-FM more than did the female exercise groups (p < 0.05). Male AET altered absolute FM more than male RET altered absolute FFM, thus resulting in a greater enhancement of relative FFM. Despite equivalent or greater responses to RET or AET by female subjects, the corresponding respective increases in FFM or reductions in FM were lower than those in males, indicating that a biased dose-response relationship exists between sexes following 10 weeks of exercise training.

Effect of different types of lower body resistance training on arterial compliance and calf blood flow.

Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2012 Jan;32(1):45-51

Authors: Fahs CA, Rossow LM, Loenneke JP, Thiebaud RS, Kim D, Bemben DA, Bemben MG

Abstract: Low-intensity resistance exercise combined with blood flow restriction has been shown to produce comparable increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy as traditional high-intensity (HI) resistance training. However, the vascular effects of low-intensity blood flow-restricted (LI-BFR) exercise training are not well characterized. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the vascular effects of LI-BFR, moderate-intensity (MI), and HI resistance exercise training. Forty-six young men were divided into four groups: a HI, MI or LI-BFR lower body resistance training group or a non-exercise control group (C). Blood pressure, arterial compliance and calf vascular conductance (CVC) were assessed before and after the 6-week intervention. After the intervention, CVC was significantly increased in the three exercise groups combined compared with C (47·5 ± 3·1 versus 35·0 ± 4·5 flow per mmHg) without any changes in arterial compliance in any group. These results suggest HI, MI and LI-BFR lower body resistance exercises increase CVC, but do not affect arterial compliance. LI-BFR resistance exercise may be an effective alternative to HI resistance exercise for improving vascular conductance for individuals unable to perform HI resistance exercise. As more evidence concerning the safety and efficacy of LI-BFR resistance exercise continues to mount, this may provide a research base for prescribing this type of exercise if and/or when this type of exercise becomes more available worldwide.

Promoting lower extremity strength in elite volleyball players: Effects of two combined training methods.

J Sci Med Sport. 2012 Apr 6;

Authors: Voelzke M, Stutzig N, Thorhauer HA, Granacher U

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare the impact of short term training with resistance plus plyometric training (RT+P) or electromyostimulation plus plyometric training (EMS+P) on explosive force production in elite volleyball players. DESIGN: Sixteen elite volleyball players of the first German division participated in a training study. METHODS: The participants were randomly assigned to either the RT+P training group (n=8) or the EMS+P training group (n=8). Both groups participated in a 5-week lower extremity exercise program. Pre and post tests included squat jumps (SJ), countermovement jumps (CMJ), and drop jumps (DJ) on a force plate. The three-step reach height (RH) was assessed using a custom-made vertec apparatus. Fifteen m straight and lateral sprint (S15s and S15l) were assessed using photoelectric cells with interims at 5m and 10m. RESULTS: RT+P training resulted in significant improvements in SJ (+2.3%) and RH (+0.4%) performance. The EMS+P training group showed significant increases in performance of CMJ (+3.8%), DJ (+6.4%), RH (+1.6%), S15l (-3.8%) and after 5m and 10m of the S15s (-2.6%; -0.5%). The comparison of training-induced changes between the two intervention groups revealed significant differences for the SJ (p=0.023) in favor of RT+P and for the S15s after 5m (p=0.006) in favor of EMS+P. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that RT+P training is effective in promoting jump performances and EMS+P training increases jump, speed and agility performances of elite volleyball players.

Effects of pre-exercise feeding on serum hormone concentrations and biomarkers of myostatin and ubiquitin proteasome pathway activity.

Eur J Nutr. 2012 Apr 5;

Authors: Dalbo VJ, Roberts MD, Hassell S, Kerksick CM

Abstract: PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine the acute effects of pre-exercise ingestion of protein, carbohydrate, and a non-caloric placebo on serum concentrations of insulin and cortisol, and the intramuscular gene expression of myostatin- and ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP)-related genes following a bout of resistance exercise. METHODS: Ten untrained college-aged men participated in three resistance exercise sessions (3 × 10 at 80 % 1RM for bilateral hack squat, leg press, and leg extension) in a cross-over fashion, which were randomly preceded by protein, carbohydrate, or placebo ingestion 30 min prior to training. Pre-supplement/pre-exercise, 2 h and 6 h post-exercise muscle biopsies were obtained during each session and analyzed for mRNA fold changes in myostatin (MSTN), activin IIB, follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3), SMAD specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (SMURF1), forkhead box O3, F-box protein 32 (FBXO32), and Muscle RING-finger protein-1, with beta-actin serving as the housekeeping gene. Gene expression of all genes was analyzed using real-time PCR. RESULTS: Acute feeding appeared to have no significant effect on myostatin or UPP biomarkers. However, resistance exercise resulted in a significant downregulation of MSTN and FBXO32 mRNA expression and a significant upregulation in FSTL3 and SMURF1 mRNA expression (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: An acute bout of resistance exercise results in acute post-exercise alterations in intramuscular mRNA expression of myostatin and UPP markers suggestive of skeletal muscle growth. However, carbohydrate and protein feeding surrounding resistance exercise appear to have little influence on the acute expression of these markers.

Resistance Training in Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Impact on Areas of Metabolic Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle and Potential Impact on Bone.

J Nutr Metab. 2012;2012:268197

Authors: Wood RJ, O’Neill EC

Abstract:The prevalence of Type II Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing rapidly and will continue to be a major healthcare expenditure burden. As such, identification of effective lifestyle treatments is paramount. Skeletal muscle and bone display metabolic and functional disruption in T2DM. Skeletal muscle in T2DM is characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glycogen synthesis, impairments in mitochondria, and lipid accumulation. Bone quality in T2DM is decreased, potentially due to the effects of advanced glycation endproducts on collagen, impaired osteoblast activity, and lipid accumulation. Although exercise is widely recognized as an important component of treatment for T2DM, the focus has largely been on aerobic exercise. Emerging research suggests that resistance training (strength training) may impose potent and unique benefits in T2DM. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of resistance training in treating the dysfunction in skeletal muscle and the potential role for resistance training in treating the associated dysfunction in bone.

The effects of lifestyle interventions in dynapenic-obese postmenopausal women.

Menopause. 2012 Apr 2;

Authors: Sénéchal M, Bouchard DR, Dionne IJ, Brochu M

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of caloric restriction (CR) and resistance training (RT) on body composition, metabolic profile and physical capacity in dynapenic-obese postmenopausal women. METHODS: Thirty-eight dynapenic-obese postmenopausal (age, 62.6 ± 4.1 y) women were randomly assigned to one of four groups (1, CR; 2, RT; 3, CR + RT; and 4, control) for a 12-week intervention. The independent variables were body weight, fat mass, and lean body mass (using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), waist circumference, fasting lipids and glucose, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and physical capacity (6-min walk, chair stand, and one-leg stand tests). RESULTS: Body weight, fat mass, and waist circumference decreased similarly in the CR and CR + RT groups (all P ≤ 0.05). However, only changes in the CR + RT group were significantly different from the control group (all P ≤ 0.05). Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased in the CR group (all P ≤ 0.05); whereas total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure decreased in the CR + RT group (P ≤ 0.05). Physical capacity improved significantly in the RT and CR + RT groups (all P ≤ 0.05), with significant greater improvements in the RT group (P ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that CR with or without RT is effective in improving metabolic profile, whereas RT is effective in improving physical capacity. The combination of RT and CR may be particularly relevant in maximizing improvements in physical capacity in dynapenic-obese postmenopausal women.

The effects of quadriceps strengthening on pain, function, and patellofemoral joint contact area in persons with patellofemoral pain.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2012 Feb;91(2):98-106

Authors: Chiu JK, Wong YM, Yung PS, Ng GY

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Patellar malalignment is a major cause of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), but the relationship between clinical symptoms and changes in patellar position and knee muscle strength has not been confirmed. This study examined the effect of weight training on hip and knee muscle strength, patellofemoral joint contact area, and patellar tilt on subjects with and without PFPS, hoping to develop an optimal rehabilitation protocol for subjects with PFPS.
DESIGN: The study uses a prospective independent group comparison. Fifteen subjects with and without PFPS were assessed for knee strength, patellofemoral joint contact area, and patellar tilt angle using magnetic resonance imaging. The subjects with PFPS were also examined and given a numeric pain rating score and a Kujala patellofemoral score. The subjects performed lower-limb weight training 3 times/wk for 8 wks, and the outcomes were assessed both before and after training.
RESULTS: Subjects with PFPS have increased their patellofemoral joint contact area after weight training (P < 0.001). No statistical significant change was found on the patellar tilt angle. The isometric and isokinetic knee strength in subjects with and without PFPS have increased after weight training (P value increased from 0.007 to 0.05). Both numeric pain rating and Kujala patellofemoral score in the PFPS group improved after training (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Weight-training exercise increased knee muscle strength and the patellofemoral joint contact area, which could reduce mechanical stress in the joint, improving pain and function in subjects with PFPS.

Resistance exercise inter-set cooling strategy: effect on performance and muscle damage.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2011 Dec;6(4):580-4

Authors: Galoza P, Sampaio-Jorge F, Machado M, Fonseca R, Silva PA

Abstract:PURPOSE: To compare the effect of inter-set cooling and no cooling during resistance exercise (RE) on the total repetitions and select muscle damage biomarker responses.
METHODS: Sixteen healthy men volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to Cooling (n = 8) or Control (n = 8) groups. They performed a RE protocol consisting of four sets of biceps curl at 80% of 1RM. The cooling group received the application of wet bags of ice during each interest rest interval (Cooling), while the Control realized the same protocol without ice application. Exercise was performed to voluntary fatigue and the numbers of repetitions per set were recorded. Subjects provided blood samples before and at 24, 48, and 72 h following RE to evaluate serum CK activity and myoglobin concentration.
RESULTS: The Cooling group produced a greater number of repetitions (approx. 21%) than did the Control, but there were no differences in serum CK activity and myoglobin responses between the groups.
CONCLUSION: Incorporating inter-set external cooling augments the number of repetitions per set during RE without inducing an additional muscle damage biomarker response.

The effect of cluster loading on force, velocity, and power during ballistic jump squat training.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2011 Dec;6(4):455-68

Authors: Hansen KT, Cronin JB, Newton MJ

Abstract: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of set structure, in terms of repetition work:rest ratios on force, velocity, and power during jump squat training.
METHODS: Twenty professional and semiprofessional rugby players performed training sessions comprising four sets of 6 repetitions of a jump squat using four different set configurations. The first involved a traditional configuration (TR) of 4 × 6 repetitions with 3 min of rest between sets, the second (C1) 4 × 6 × singles (1 repetition) with 12 s of rest between repetitions, the third (C2) 4 × 3 × doubles (2 repetitions) with 30 s of rest between pairs, and the third (C3) 4 × 2 × triples (3 repetitions) with 60 s of rest between triples. A spreadsheet for the analysis of controlled trials that calculated the P-value, and percent difference and Cohen’s effect size from log-transformed data was used to investigate differences in repetition force, velocity, and power profiles among configurations.
RESULTS: Peak power was significantly lower (P < .05) for the TR condition when compared with C1 and C3 for repetition 4, and all cluster configurations for repetitions 5 and 6. Peak velocity was significantly lower (P < .05) for the TR condition compared with C3 at repetition 4, significantly lower compared with C2 and C3 at repetition 5, and significantly lower compared with all cluster conditions for repetition 6.
CONCLUSIONS: Providing inter-repetition rest during a traditional set of six repetitions can attenuate decreases in power and velocity of movement through the set

A methodologic approach for normalizing angular work and velocity during isotonic and isokinetic eccentric training.

J Athl Train. 2012;47(2):125-9

Authors: Guilhem G, Cornu C, Guével A

Abstract: CONTEXT: Resistance exercise training commonly is performed against a constant external load (isotonic) or at a constant velocity (isokinetic). Researchers comparing the effectiveness of isotonic and isokinetic resistance-training protocols need to equalize the mechanical stimulus (work and velocity) applied.
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the standardization protocol could be adjusted and applied to an eccentric training program.
DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study.
SETTING: Controlled research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-one sport science male students (age = 20.6 ± 1.5 years, height = 178.0 ± 4.0 cm, mass = 74.5 ± 9.1 kg). Intervention(s): Participants performed 9 weeks of isotonic (n = 11) or isokinetic (n = 10) eccentric training of knee extensors that was designed so they would perform the same amount of angular work at the same mean angular velocity. Main Outcome Measure(s): Angular work and angular velocity.
RESULTS: The isotonic and isokinetic groups performed the same total amount of work (-185.2 ± 6.5 kJ and -184.4 ± 8.6 kJ, respectively) at the same angular velocity (21 ± 1°/s and 22°/s, respectively) with the same number of repetitions (8.0 and 8.0, respectively). Bland-Altman analysis showed that work (bias = 2.4%) and angular velocity (bias = 0.2%) were equalized over 9 weeks between the modes of training.
CONCLUSIONS: The procedure developed allows angular work and velocity to be standardized over 9 weeks of isotonic and isokinetic eccentric training of the knee extensors. This method could be useful in future studies in which researchers compare neuromuscular adaptations induced by each type of training mode with respect to rehabilitating patients after musculoskeletal injury.

Comparison of low-intensity blood flow-restricted training-induced muscular hypertrophy in eumenorrheic women in the follicular phase and luteal phase and age-matched men.

Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2012 May;32(3):185-91

Authors: Sakamaki M, Yasuda T, Abe T

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle hypertrophic response in women during both the follicular (FP) and the luteal phase (LP) of their menstrual cycles following short-term, low-intensity resistance training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR). Eight eumenorrheic women and five men, all previously untrained, performed unilateral low-intensity (30% of 1 repetition maximum) dumbbell curl training with BFR once a day for 6 days. The opposite arm served as an untrained control. This 6-day training programme was conducted during both menstrual cycle phases: the early FP and the mid LP. MRI-measured biceps muscle volume (MV) and isometric elbow flexion strength were measured in both arms before and 2 days after the final training bout. Significantly (P0.05) with the percentage change in MV between the LP and FP. There was no change in MV in the control arm for both cycle phases. Following training, isometric strength increased (P

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